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The Nazis were totally different from the Japanese: different race, different language, vast cultural gap.

Reasons for validating scientific reasoning

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Hence, accounts of method cannot be entirely divorced from their methodological and meta-methodological motivations or justifications, Moreover, each aspect plays a crucial role in identifying methods.Disputes about method have therefore played out at the detail, rule, and meta-rule levels.Sections 3 and 4 surveys the main positions on scientific method in 20 century philosophy of science, focusing on where they differ in their preference for confirmation or falsification or for waiving the idea of a special scientific method altogether.In recent decades, attention has primarily been paid to scientific activities traditionally falling under the rubric of method, such as experimental design and general laboratory practice, the use of statistics, the construction and use of models and diagrams, interdisciplinary collaboration, and science communication.

One theme is seeking the right balance between observation and reasoning (and the attendant forms of reasoning which employ them); the other is how certain scientific knowledge is or can be.

Unificationists continue to hold out for one method essential to science; nihilism is a form of radical pluralism, which considers the effectiveness of any methodological prescription to be so context sensitive as to render it not explanatory on its own.

Some middle degree of pluralism regarding the methods embodied in scientific practice seems appropriate.

But the details of scientific practice vary with time and place, from institution to institution, across scientists and their subjects of investigation.

How significant are the variations for understanding science and its success? This entry describes some of the attempts to characterize scientific method or methods, as well as arguments for a more context-sensitive approach to methods embedded in actual scientific practices.