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By the late 1960s, government policy had moved towards a policy of integration, reflecting a greater awareness of the difficulties faced by new migrants and an acceptance of the possibility that migrants could integrate successfully in Australian society without losing their national identities completely.

Echoing developments in other immigrant-receiving countries, notably Canada, by the late 1970s there was a growing acceptance of broader expressions of cultural diversity or 'multiculturalism' within Australian society.

We asked the Review to have regard to our Federalism policy and our objective of supporting the enterprise and dedication of community groups who provide programs and services to migrants ...

we recognise the special needs which migrants, particularly the non-English speaking and the more recently arrived, have in settling here.

A significant proportion of multicultural policy development and implementation now occurs at the state and territory level and a great deal of work is also undertaken at the grassroots level, by community organisations and non-government organisations (NGOs).[6] Part One briefly discusses multicultural policies at the state and territory level, with a focus on multicultural policy in NSW and Victoria.

The Government's assimilation policies were based on an assumption that this would not be difficult for new arrivals given time.As recognised, for example in the Australian context by the Australian Human Rights Commission (AHRC), discussions on multiculturalism must necessarily include Indigenous Australians and include engagement with issues of reconciliation.[3] However, as indicated in Part One of this paper, attempts to bring Indigenous issues within the rubric of multiculturalism in a policy context have been controversial.[4] Some academic commentators caution that to conflate issues facing Indigenous Australians with those facing Australians of migrant background in this way not only fails to appreciate the origins and basis of multicultural policy in Australia, but also fails to recognise the unique consideration due to Indigenous peoples as the first peoples of the land.[5] This paper is primarily concerned with issues of ethno-cultural diversity resulting from immigration, but recognises that no national conversation about multiculturalism is complete without the inclusion of Indigenous people and appreciation of the issues that they face.While the policy of multiculturalism was first introduced in Australia at a federal level, Australian state and territory governments have subsequently developed their own multicultural policy frameworks.Settlement assistance was limited to the provision of migrant hostels and some language tuition.[8] By the 1960s and 1970s, the focus on 'assimilation' was replaced by a focus on 'integration', and then on to 'multiculturalism' in recognition of the challenges facing migrants in settling into Australian society and acceptance that new arrivals may not want to lose their cultural identity.[9] Building on the easing of racially restricted immigration in the 1960s a universal admissions policy and an end to White Australia were also announced in 1973.[10] These developments gained legislative weight through the Commonwealth Parliament's enactment of the in 1975, which aimed to implement Australia's obligations under the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1969) by prohibiting racial and other forms of discrimination.[11] Multiculturalism was first presented as the basis for migrant settlement, welfare and social-cultural policy in Australia in a 1973 speech entitled , delivered by the Minister for Immigration under the Whitlam Government, Al Grassby.[12] This was the first time the term 'multi-cultural society' was used in an official Australian Government policy statement.[13] However, academic, Mark Lopez argues that multiculturalism had a precarious status as ministerial policy because Grassby had not attempted to change the Labor Party's immigration policy, and the policy direction outlined in his speech was not officially confirmed by the Whitlam Government or the Labor Party.[14] Nevertheless, Lopez argues that by the end of 1973 four of the six state Migrant Taskforce Committees: ...As global migration increases in scale and complexity Australia is one among many nations that are faced with the challenges of responding effectively and imaginatively to the increasing diversity of contemporary societies.