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Early sources from the 11th and 12th centuries mention official debates or Disputationes between Christians and Jews, in which attempts were made to convince the Jews of the truth of Christianity and to try to convert them.A few references to them are in existence which distinctly mention them as present in the other provinces at an earlier date, especially after their expulsion from France in 1321 and the persecutions in Hainaut and the Rhine provinces.At Dutch request, Archduke Mattias established religious peace in most of the provinces, which was later guaranteed by article 13 of the 1579 Unie van Utrecht.Moreover, in 1581, the deputies of the United Provinces memorably declared independence by issuing the Act of Abjuration, which deposed Philip as their sovereign.In Arnhem, where a Jewish physician is mentioned, the magistrate similarly defended him against the hostilities of the populace.When Jews settled in the diocese of Utrecht is unknown, but rabbinical records regarding Jewish dietary laws speculated that the Jewish community there dated back to Roman times.The first Jews in the province of Gelderland were reported in 1325.Jews have been settled in Nijmegen, the oldest settlement, in Doesburg, Zutphen, and in Arnhem since 1404.

The Jews were held responsible for the epidemic and for the way it was rapidly spreading, because presumably they were the ones who had poisoned the water of the springs used by the Christians.

It is likely that the earliest Jews arrived in the “Low Countries,” present day Belgium and the Netherlands, during the Roman conquest early in the common era.

Little is known about these early settlers, other than the fact that they were not very numerous.

In 1522, Charles V issued a proclamation in Gelderland and Utrecht against Christians who were suspected of being lax in the faith, as well as against Jews who had not been baptized; he repeated such edicts in 15, as the Reformation grew.

In 1571 the Duke of Alba notified the authorities of Arnhem that all Jews living there should be seized and held until the disposition to be made of them had been determined upon.